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PATPI学会、2007年7月17、18日、インドネシア・バンドン市

インドネシア、バンドン市で7月17〜18日に開催されたPATPI学会(The Indonesian Association of Food Technologists) でノニ研究成績の一端を発表した。

本学会はインドネシアの食品製造工学に従事する大学、政府研究機関や民間企業の研究者主たるを構成員とするもので、発表者の一人であるIngrid博士は本会の重要な地位に就かれている。

インドネシア・農業大臣Anton Apriyantono (Ingrid博士、Waspodo修士の後輩)による基調演説で学会は開始された。

1955年インドネシア・スカルノ大統領によって開催された記念すべきアジア・アフリカ会議(通称:バンドン会議)の地であり、学会場は歴史的なGrand Hotel Preangerであった(恐らく、日本代表団は本ホテルに宿泊)。

報告内容は、インドネシアで既に西垣代表によって紹介され、興味をもたれているノニジュースによる「血液サラサラ」効果とした。

インドネシアにおいても、ノニに対する正しい認識がなされていないし、ノニ研究を「行っている研究者が少ない。この様な背景のもとに、優良な伝承医薬品の正確な情報認識、さまざまな角度からの継続的研究の必要性を強調する意味合いを込めて、ノニジュースの血液流動性改善効果を報告した。

薬用植物の機能性研究の中心大学ボゴール農業大学(IPB)の研究者から、多くの質問を頂き、有意義な討論ができた。さらに、インドネシアの研究者等へ研究の必要性やノニに関して再認識の機会となった。

また、血液流動測定機器MC-FANにも注目が集まり、政府研究機関から機器についての情報を求められ、機能性評価の一環としての利用が検討されている。

本学会誌への掲載論文は以下の通りです(10月頃出版予定)。

Improved Effects of Blood Fluidity by Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia ) in human

Ingrid S. Waspodo,.,3, Priyo Waspodo1,2, Toshiaki Nishigaki1)
Tokyo Noni Research Center PT. Morindo International, 
3
SEAMEO-TROPMED RCCN, University of Indonesia

 ABSTRACT

Morinda citrifolia fruit juice (Noni juice) has evident in multi-potential health effects and well recognized as excellent healthy food worldwide. In a series of study of Noni juice’s actions, we examined the effect of blood fluidity in 5 persons with a Microchannel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). Compared with pre-dosing of Noni juice, all the subjects showed shorter whole blood flow time at 1 h after taking Noni juice in a single and 2.5~3.5 months repeated dose studies. Longer blood flow time by ADP addition to bloods was inhibited in all persons. From further investigations, we concluded that scopoletin in Noni fruits plays a significant role in improving the blood rheology. Noni juice is likely to prevent embolism-related disorders.  

Keywords : Noni juice, blood fluidity

Introduction

Morinda citrifolia (hereinafter Noni) is Indonesia-originated indigenous herbal plant of which fruits, leaves and roots have been utilized as traditional medicine, foods, natural dye and so on for 6,000 years. We have already found that Noni fruit juice is rich in medium fatty acids, dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals, and disclosed some of biological and pharmacological actions including bactericidal action, inhibition of DNA damage, anti-mutagenicity, anti-oxidation or scavenging activity of reactive oxygen species, inhibition of type 1 diabetes mellitus etc. (1~5).
   In this paper, we report that Indonesian Noni juice improves blood fluidity in humans and that scopoletin, one of active ingredient in Noni fruit, plays an important role for improvement of blood rheology and inhibition of platelet aggregation.

Materials and Methods

Two types of Noni juice were used in this study. One is mixed type with other fruits juice, another 100% pure squeezed juice (PP grade juice) supplied by Balians Japan Co., Ltd. And PT Morindo International, respectively

Japanese 2 women and 3 men  (average age: 48.8) were enrolled. In a single dose study, 100ml of mixed type was given and then they took Noni juice, mixed type or PP grade juice dependent on their taste, for 2.5 to 3.5-month repeated study (Table 1). The moiety of blood was treated with ADP, platelet aggregation activator, and blood flow time was measured in the same way.

Table 1 Subjects and Noni juice dosage

No.

Sex

Age

Noni juice taken at measurement

Noni juice in repeated study

Period

M.

F

35

Mixed juice100ml

PP grade   30~50 ml/day

3.5

F

44

Mixed juice100ml

PP grade、 30~50 ml/day

3.5

M

37

Mixed juice100ml

Mixed juice,  60~100 ml/day

3.5

M

55

Mixed juice100ml

PP grade,  30~50 ml/day

3.5

M

63

Mixed juice100ml

Mixed juice,   60~100 ml/day

2.5

  Before and 1 hr. after taking Noni juice in both studies, venous blood was collected to measure blood flow time by a Microchannel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN 6-7) with 8736 silicone tips of 7m in width (6). 100μL of saline can pass through the analyzer in 12 sec. It is reported that average blood flow time of healthy Japanese women and men are 40 sec. and 45 sec, respectively.

 Results

 1 Blood flow time

Compared with before-dose blood time, blood flow time at 1 hr after Noni juice ingestion caused 3.2 to 6.7 seconds shorter, average 4.7 seconds, in blood flow time of all the persons in a single study. In a repeated study, blood flow time of all the persons was shortened, in average of 1.6 seconds. Blood flow times between the single and repeated studies were remarkably shorten by 3.9 to 7.1 seconds. The average shorter time was 5.1 seconds in about 3 months.

 2 Effect on ADP-stimulation

ADP, adenosine diphosphate is stored in the platelets, and released by various stimulations. ADP can stimulate platelets resulting in aggregation, blood clotting or interrupting blood circulation.  
   Blood from the single and repeated dose studies was treated with ADP at 0.1 μM concentration and blood flow time was measured.

In the single and repeated studies, the addition of ADP to blood caused blood flow times longer compared with those without ADP treatment. However, 1 hr after Noni juice intake, ADP-treated blood flow time was shortened.  In the repeated study, blood flows of all the persons, except one man revealed inhibitory effects of Noni juice against flow time elongation of ADP-treated bloods.

3 Effects of Noni juice and scopoletin on ADP-stimulation

Blood was collected from M, 55 years person with heavy smoking, and pre-treated with PP grade Noni juice at 0.01% or scopoletin at 0.1 and 1 μM. After addition of ADP, blood flow times for 20 and 100μL were measured with FC-FAN.

PP grade Noni juice pretreated to blood made blood flow time shorter in comparison with ADP treatment only. Scopoletin, too showed the same results in dose-dependent manner.

4 Effect of scopoletin on PRP aggregation

In addition, action of scopoletin was examined by means of platelet-coagulometer.
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) with 300,000/
μL was prepared from M, 55 years person. Scopoletin ranged from 0.1~10μM was pretreated with PRP at 37 degree C. for 1 minute. Thereafter, 5 or 10μM of ADP was added and permeability indicating grades of coagulation was monitored for 5 minutes.

In the common experimental condition of 5μM ADP platelet aggregation, scopoletin inhibited ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation at range of from 0.1 to 5μM.

 Discussion and Conclusion

    Noni is one of most important herbal medicinal materials in Indonesia . Traditionally, Noni fruits and leaves are utilized for maintenance of health and cure of various diseases (7). From our researches, Indonesian Noni fruit juice inhibits damage of DNA and has anti-mutagenic action (2,3). These actions may be related to strong scavenging activity of reactive oxygen species (4) which are believed to contribute to nuclear damages. Medium chain fatty acids cause bad odor, but their contents are comparable with mother’s milk (8) and may contribute to protect from bacterial and viral infections.

An additional feature of Noni fruits is to contain relatively higher level of scopoletin that is a cumarin derivative. We routinely determine the scopoletin contents in Noni juice from different origins and products. We found that scopoletin contents varied from areas of origin and from products (9). So far, Indonesian Noni juice from PT Morindo International is highest at 61 μg/mL(Table2). There are several reports that scopoletin is very active substance with many functions (10).

 Table 2 Scopoletin contents in Noni juice products

Noni juice product

Scopoletin (μg/mL)

Mixed juice, Tahiti  (MLM business)

11

Mixed juice, Hawaii

10

Samoa , decayed juice

38

Indonesian, PP grade juice

61

In this study, we focused on improvement of blood fluidity and anti-platelet aggregation action by scopoletin. From our clinical and in vitro studies, it was clearly demonstrated that Indonesian Noni juice enhanced blood flow by using a Microchannel array analyzer and that about 3-month repeated intake of Noni juice further improved blood fluidity. Longer blood flow time and anti-aggregation by ADP-stimulation were remarkably inhibited by Noni juice itself or scopoletin.

Provided that 50 ml of PP grade Noni juice is taken by a 60kg weighed person and absorbed from the guts to blood stream at 100%, blood level of scopoletin can reach 3.3 μM. Even if absorption ratio is 30%, blood level is still satisfactory with 1μM. This means that the results of in vitro blood flow and platelet coagulation studies can be reflected in in vivo condition where scopoletin from Noni juice plays an important role in improvement of blood flow and prevention of blood aggregation or clotting.

 The blood circulation system with 100,000 km in the entire body is very important in delivery of nutrients and excretion of metabolic waste. If blood flow slows down and/or stops, the cells and tissues in affected area fall in hypoxia resulting in degeneration, necrosis, and age-related diseases. Noni juice can keep smooth blood flow and may prevent from diseases associated with platelet-aggregation, such as infarction, atherosclerosis, DIC, inflammation, migraine etc.  

We believe that Noni fruit juice is helpful in maintenance and improvement of health. Therefore, many Japanese have been recognizing its merits and the market is still expanding. However, we shall know there are big differences in quality of Noni juice.

Finally, we would like to emphasize that substances of xeronine and proxeronine are not present in this world (11). They are faked materials created by American group to sell their Noni juice from French Polynesia of which soils are still polluted by radio-active nuclear materials due to hundreds nuclear tests according to France authority (Kyodo News release, Feb. 10, 2006). Anthraquinon derivatives are absent in Noni fruits, but they are from the roots.  In order to compete with foreign companies and produce quality Indonesian products, it is important to face with sincere and curious attitudes and win worldwide credibility. 

References

 1)      Surono I.S., Waspodo P. and Kurniawan H.: Seminar Nasional Industri Pangan, PATPI, 2000
2)      Surono I. S.: 31th Annual Meeting of Japanese Environmental Mutagen Soc., 2002
3)      Nishigaki T. and. Surono I. S.: “Mengludu, Morinda citrifolia”, Tokyo Noni Research Center , 2003
4)      Katoh M.: Thesis for M. Sci. In Nagasaki University , 2005
5)      Nishigaki T. Et al.: 94th Conference of the Japan Society of Pathology, 2005
6)      Kikuchi Y., et al.. Hemorheology and Related Research, 2004
7)      Sudarman M. and Harsono R.: “Cabe Puyang” 2, Balai Pustaka, 1987
8)      Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan , 2001
9)      Son Y. , et al: Conference of the Japanese Pharmaceutical Society, 2003
10)   Nishigaki T.: “Noni Science No. 2”, Tokyo Noni Research Center, 2005
11)   McClatchey W.: Integrative Cancer Therapies , 2002

Dr. Ingrid(左端), Mr. Waspodo(左から3人目),
 Mr. Thomas(インドネシア食品・清涼飲料水協会会長、右から2人目), 西垣(右端)

1955年開催の歴史的バンドン会議場にて

 

発表者:
Dr. Ingrid Waspodoは、信州大学農学部で乳酸菌のプロビオテイック研究を行い、岐阜大学にて博士号取得。インドネシアにおけるプロビオテイック、ノニ研究の第一人者。東京ノニ研究所委員。

Mr.Priyo Waspodoは、Bogor Agriculture University卒業後、英国にて食品製造工学で修士号取得。
信州大学農学部研究生、日本の医薬品研究所勤務経験がある日本語も達者なインドネシアのノニ研究者の一人。東京ノニ研究所専門研究員。

西垣敏明:東京ノニ研究所代表。インドネシア政府と薬用植物分野で、1993年発効の生物多様性条約に基づき系統的研究の道筋をつけているところ。

本研究の一部は、2004年日本ヘモレオロジー学会で発表。

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